The Alhambra (/ælˈhæmbrə/; Spanish:[aˈlambɾa]; Arabic:الْحَمْرَاء[ʔælħæmˈɾˠɑːʔ], Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "the red one"), the complete form of which was Calat Alhamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada.
Alhambra's Islamic palaces, as we know them today, were built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain and the court of the Nasrid dynasty. After the conquest of Granada by the Reyes Católicos ("Catholic Monarchs") in 1492, some portions were used by Christian rulers. The Palace of Charles V, built by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1527, was inserted in the Alhambra within the Nasrid fortifications. After being allowed to fall into disrepair for centuries, the buildings being occupied by squatters, Alhambra was rediscovered in the 19th century by European scholars and travelers, with restorations commencing. It is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions, exhibiting the country's most significant and well known Islamic architecture, together with 16th-century and later Christian building and garden interventions. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the inspiration for many songs and stories.
The Alhambra occupies a building originally opened in 1920 by the Paris Fraternal Railway Association as a 600 seat theatre called the Théâtre Art Déco des Cheminots (Art Deco Theatre of the Railways). The elaborate furnishings included beautiful mahogany doors, geometric chandeliers, and stucco pillars — surmounted all by a bas-relief of a locomotive. The theatre, which had never been legally recognized as a theater by the Paris authorities, was converted to a commercial building in 1933, but it still contained a drive-in theater reserved for railway workers. Unfortunately, this drive-in theater was rarely open.
In 2005 the quaint charm and history of the site captured the attention of theatrical producer Jean-Claude Auclair; he immediately bought the building with the intention of restoring it. Unfortunately, modern standards of safety, and the fact that the theatre had no acoustic insulation and no air conditioning forced Auclair to demolish much of the original structure and to rebuild it entirely. Under the direction of architect Pascal Lépissier they created a completely soundproof auditorium inside a shell of concrete and steel, weighing 60 tons, and set on springs. It took two years and cost three million euros.
Jewellery or jewelry (/ˈdʒuːᵊlᵊri/) consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery. The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia.
2001–2003: Debut, line-up changes, Again & Beloved
Jewelry founding members Park Jung-ah, Lee Ji-hyun, Jun Eun-mi and Jung Yoo-jin debuted in 2001 with their first album Discovery. After less-than-stellar sales of the first album, two of the singers (Jun Eun-mi and Jung Yoo-jin) were replaced by Seo In-young and Cho Min-ah.
A year later, their second album, Again, was released, with much better results. Full of strong R&B ballads (as opposed to the sexy dance songs that were popular at that time), the album quickly yielded two high-charting singles — "Again" and "Tonight" — which started the group's rise to popularity. This was quickly followed by their third album Beloved, which had a very cutesy theme. Their first single "니가 참 좋아" ("I Really Like You") was very poppy and had Jewelry adopt a cutesy concept to match the song, with colorful outfits and perky dances. The title track, Be My Love, was also promoted. Even though album sales for Again and Beloved were great, the group was unhappy with their current image, and did not want to be known for only their cute and innocent songs.
The Mel Bernie Company, trading as 1928 Jewelry Company (and sometimes referred to simply as "1928 Jewelry") is a manufacturer and wholesaler of costume jewelry and novelties. They also distribute their products directly to consumers through their website.
The 1928 Jewelry Company was founded by Melvyn Bernie in 1968. Today, it is one of the largest and last standing jewelry manufacturers in the U.S. The company specializes in reproductions and interpretations of antique jewelry designs. It is located in Burbank, California and has about 250 employees as of 2013. It is a privately held company.
The company has diversified and grown by extending the 1928 brand into several other labels and categories including "2028", "1928 Boutique", the "Vatican Library Collection", "Antiquities Couture", and "1928 Hair Jewelry". In 2011, 1928 Jewelry reached an agreement with Laundry by Shelli Segal (a Perry Ellis International brand) to design and market jewelry complementary to that fashion line. In 2012, 1928 Jewelry launched a line of Marvel Comics superhero themed jewelry.